Naturalness as a Basis for Incorporating Marine Biodiversity into Life Cycle Assessment of Seafood

A. K. Farmery, S. Jennings, C. Gardner, R. A. Watson, B. Green, (In Press). The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 3.

Biodiversity, Hemeroby, Land use, Life cycle assessment, Naturalness, Sea floor, Seafood, Seawater column 

Methods to quantify biodiversity impacts through life cycle assessment (LCA) are evolving for both land- and marine-based production systems, although typically independently from each other. An indicator for terrestrial food production systems that may be suitable to assess marine biodiversity, and is applicable across all food production systems, is a measure of hemeroby or distance from the natural state. We explore the possibility of adapting this approach to marine systems to assess the impact of fishing on seawater column and seafloor systems.